Tag Archives: Library of Congress

Ideas, Events, Resources and Other Spring Things!

 World Book Day – April 23

CALENDAR

In truth,World Book Day, sponsored by UNESCO, is a movable feast, celebrated at various times by individual nations.  The official April 23 date goes back to 1923 when established book Spanish booksellers. The date honors the birth of Shakespeare and the death of both Shakespeare and Cervantes, both of whom died on the same date, April 23, 1616.  The day is also known as UNESCO World Book and Copyright Day.

On the virtual heels of and in the spirit of World Book we celebrate World Intellectual Property Day on April 26– a day more honored in the breach in these conflicted times.  The event was established by the World Intellectual Property Organization to “raise awareness of how patents, copyright, trademarks and designs impart on daily life” and “to celebrate creativity, and the contribution made by creators and innovators to the development of societies across the globe.” (World Intellectual Property Organization statement)

 April is also National Poetry Month(https://www.poets.org/national-poetry-month/national-poetry-month-faq)   It’s not too late.  Consider the excellent guide to Poetry Resources produced by the Library of Congress. The guide includes the Archive of Hispanic Literature on Tape, the Archive of Recorded Poetry & Literature, begun in 1932 under the aegis of Allen Tate, LC Consultant in Poetry, the Center for the Book sponsored Webcasts, Conversations with African Poets and Writers, Library of Congress Poetry and Literature Webcasts, the Library of Congress Poetry Webcasts, a comprehensive listing of LC’s recent poetry webcasts, the National Book Festival, and well as webcasts and recordings of countless individual poets, e.g. thee webcast of Lucille Clifton, Robert Frost, Gwendolyn Brooks, Robert Pinsky, James Dickey, Stephen Spender, Charles Simic, Kurt Vonnegut  and scores of others .   Descriptions and links to these and more poetry resources of LC.  A good link to explore the treasures is this: https://www.loc.gov/poetry/— or try this search strategy: https://www.loc.gov/collections/archive-of-recorded-poetry-and-literature/about-this-collection/  For last minute National Poetry Month resources check here: https://www.poets.org/national-poetry-month/home

New from LC: https://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2018/04/new-poetry-podcast-series-launches/?loclr=ealocb


EVENTS – A smattering of the possibilities

Talk of the Stacks. Sponsored by Friends of Hennepin County Library.

  • April 24Alex Wagner. In her nonfiction narrative debut, Futureface: A Family Mystery, an Epic Quest, and the Secret to Belonging, Alex Wagner, anchor and correspondent for CBS News and a contributing editor at The Atlantic, takes a journey into her own ancestry and discovers the ways race and immigration constantly redefine the American experience.
  • May 16 —Tracy K. Smith– U.S. Poet Laureate and Pulitzer Prize Winner Tracy K. Smith deftly dissects the nature of citizenship in a time when the American past and present continuously collide, as she discusses her latest collection of poems, Wade in the Water (Graywolf Press, April 2018).

April 28-10:00 AM – Minnesota Muslims Up Close. Tamim Saidiwill lead a discussion of the diversity and unity of the Muslim experience in Minnesota.  Sponsored by Minnesota Independent Scholars’ Forum.  Washburn Library.  Free and open.  5244 Lyndale Ave South, Mpls.

May 18-20   Art-a-Whirl  https://nemaa.org/art-a whirlhttps://nemaa.org/about/

Sunday, May 20, Peace and Justice Forum:  Larry Johnson and Allan Bostelemann discuss the topic “Reformation or Revolution: What should be the role of the Church on Military Killing?” 12:15 Central Lutheran Church, 3rdAvenue and 12thStreet.  Lunch available 11:45 – free will offering.

Through July 29 – “Allen Rupperesberg: Walker – Intellectual property 1968-2018:  https://walkerart.org/calendar/2018/allen-ruppersberg-intellectual-property-19682

REPORTS & RESOURCES

Online resources from the Library of Congres

  • 2018 marks the 100thanniversary of the birth of Leonard Bernstein. The Library of Congress is celebrating by making available online musical manuscripts and scrapbooks from the digital collection – 23700 items, including photos, writings, correspondence, scripts, musical sketches, scrapbooks and audio recordings.   At this writing the Bernstein Collection at LC consists of an estimated 400,000 items, including manuscripts, correspondence, audio and video recordings, photos and more.  The Library will celebrate the Bernstein centennial with a Spring mini-fest May 12-19. (loc.gov/concerts/bernstein100.html) More information at https://www.loc.gov/item/prn-18-038/library-launches-leonard-bernstein-centennial-celebration-with-thousands-of-bernstein-items-online/2018-04-10/
  • Immerse yourself in a virtual tour of the Library. In this video, Janice McKelvey discusses the history of LC,including the era when it was located within the U.S. Capitol from 1800-1987 https://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=8268&loclr=eanw.
  • If your interest is in expanding resources in music, learn about NLS Music Notes, a blog for and about those who want, need or provide the special format music of braille, audio, and large print; the showcase includes classical and popular music, new titles, interviews of and articles about blind and low vision musicians, music braille transcripters and features about current music events. https://blogs.loc.gov/nls-music-notes/
  • One fascinating post is Harriet Tubman: Teaming Up to Acquire a Rare Photograph https://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2018/03/harriet-tubman-teaming-up-to-acquire-a-rare-photograph/
  • Learn more about the work of library conservatorswith this video: “Conservation of the Emily Howland album”https://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=8267

 “Secret Service and White House win Rosemary Award for Worst in Open Government in 2017 https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/news-rosemary-award/foia/2018-03-12/secret-service-white-house-win-rosemary-award-worst-open

 “Our favorite signs from the 2018 March for Science https://blog.credomobile.com/2018/04/favorite-signs-2018-march-science/

 Almost 50 years Frederick Wiseman’s documentaries are now available on Kanopy – free to anyone with a library cad, a faculty or student ID. https://slate.com/culture/2018/04/frederick-wisemans-documentaries-are-now-streaming-via-kanopy.html

 “Enchanting illustrations carved from old books” https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/art-carved-from-old-books

 “Here are the ‘Transparency’ policy documents the EPA does not want you to see” by Yogin Kothari, Washington representative, Center for Science and Democracy, April 21, 2018. Union of Concerned Scientists. https://blog.ucsusa.org/yogin-kothari/here-are-the-transparency-policy-documents-the-epa-does-not-want-you-to-see

“Yale’s insanely popular happiness course now open to everyone’ by http://mentalfloss.com/article/540264/yales-insanely-popular-happiness-course-now-open-everyone-online, Michele Debzac, April 2018

“John Moss and the roots of the Freedom of Information Act: Worldwide implications https://unredacted.com/2018/04/17/john-moss-and-the-roots-of-the-freedom-of-information-act-worldwide-implications/

 Free online library – https://www.childrenandnature.org/?search=main&s=eeRESEARCH

“Raising teens in a new country” http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/Raising-Teens-New-Country.pdf

 https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/two-museum-directors-say-its-time-tell-unvarnished-history-us-180968341/  “History is not pretty and sometimes it is vastly different than what we’ve been taught: – Lonnie Bunch and Kevin Gover

 Craig Silverman, http://www.niemanlab.org/2018/03/living-in-a-sea-of-false-signals-are-we-being-pushed-from-trust-but-verify-to-verify-then-trust/  March 8 2018, NiemanLab “This new initiative deploys humans to review, research, and rate U.S. news sites” NiemanLab, March 5, 2018

 The rise and fall of the Hormel Girls, who sold America on SPAM https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/history-of-spam-hormel-girls

 INDEPENDENT BOOKSTORE DAY SATURDAY, APRIL 28

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BULLETIN: Poet Laureate Live – Thursday, April 18

LIVE April 19: Poet Laureate Tracy K. Smith

Staying Human: Poetry in the Age of Technology

Tracy K. Smith will report on her rural outreach efforts in her first term as U.S. Poet Laureate. Smith will also discuss the focus of her second term, read poems, and participate in a conversation with Ron Charles, editor of Washington Post’s Book World and host of the Library’s “Life of a Poet” series. Watch LIVE Thursday, April 18 at 7 p.m. ET. – Note this is 6:00 PM CST

Click here to watch on Facebook Live.

Click here to watch on YouTube (captioned).

Click here for more information on the event.

Places to go, things to do in March

“We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when adults are afraid of the light.” Attributed to Plato, (428 BC – 348 BC).

At times it seems that the designation of special months is at best redundant, sometimes trying to cram a millennium of history into a 30-day span.  And yet, it’s good to focus, and so we highlight a couple of monumental issues that claim March as their month to shine.

  • Women’s History is of relatively recent origin. First identified in 1982 as Women’s History Week the recognition gathered momentum and time until 1995 when the topic of women’s history flowered as an entire month.  The Law Library of Congress has actually collected the laws, proclamations and resolutions related to the saga of Women’s History Month.  The National Archives offers an informative – and fun – starting point to understanding the history:  https://womenshistorymonth.gov    Check out the Women’s History Month website sponsored by the National Women’s History Project here:  http://www.nwhp.org/about-2/our-history/   Other sites are sponsored by the National Park Service, the Smithsonian and the National Endowment for the Humanities, all of which offer myriad programs and resources that serve as starting points for local groups that need a spark to light a fire under their Women’s History Month plans.

* * *

The calendar of Women’s History Month activities is prodigious – just a couple of highlights give a flavor:

  • The East Side Freedom Library and the Minnesota Historical Society are working together on a special program set for Saturday, March 24, 1:00 PM at ESFL. Objectivity: ’68 to today: Women’s activism: Dolores Huerta.  The program includes a play written by the MNHS Teen Action Group and the examination of historical objects from the MNHS collection.  Focus is on Dolores Huerta, an unsung figure in the fight for equality.  Also featured is an examination of  the intersections between the women’s movement and race, communities in Minnesota and the national context, labor rights and civil rights.
  • Also at ESFL, “Let’s Talk about Hmong Women: Leadership Thursday, March 15, 6:30 pm.  This is the first in a four-part series of conversations led by members of Hnub Tshiab: Hmong Women Achieving Together.  Future conversations are set for June 1 (Patriarchy), September 13 (Motherhood), and November 8 (spirituality)
  • At the U of M Walter Library, March 30 – “Make or Break: Women in Technology Rich Spaces” 9:30 AM-11:00AM.  Women from across the U of M campus discuss the topic.  Speakers include Charlene Ellingson, Samantha Thi Porter, Robin Schwartzman and Simone Vuong.  Registration required.

Also at the University of Minnesota:

Lots happening at the State Capitol in days to come, including these events:

Aging with Dignity and Respect: It’s a social justice issue.    Tuesday, March 20, 1:00 PM, East Side Neighborhood Services, 1700 Second Street NE, Mpls.  Free and Open.  Sponsored by Vital Aging Network.  Register 651 917 4652.

World Storytelling Day (www.globalastorytellingday.org)  is an annual celebration of the theme “If I can hear our story, it’s harder for me to hate you.”  The theme explored this year by local advocates is “Wise Fools: Wisdom on the folly of war.”  Storytelling Day 2018 will be celebrated locally on Tuesday, March 20 at the Landmark Center in downtown St Paul (www.landmarkcenter.org) Six storytellers will share stories reflecting the theme.  The event is free and open.  Learn more about the event and prime mover Larry Johnson here: (https://www.hometownsource.com/sun_post/community/golden-valley-resident-draws-international-attention-to-the-art-of/article_282a7376-1c9f-11e8-83cc-1f20f00f22c1.html

“Working—The Musical” reflects “the hopes dreams and heartbreak of the American working class expressed in the music of Lin-Manuel Miranda, James Taylor and others.  The show runs March 16-18 at The O’Shaughnessy on the campus of St. Catherine University. https://oshag.stkate.edu/events/category/series/working-the-musical/

Opening March 14 at the American Craft Council  – Ani Kasten, artist, ceramist and sculptor.  Details here: https://craftcouncil.org/event/ani-kasten-ceramists-journey

The National Book Critics Circle has announced finalists for 2017 awards: http://bookcritics.org/blog/archive/national-book-critics-circle-announces-finalists-for-2017-awards

Plans are well underway for the 37th annual Minneapolis St Paul International Film Festival (https://filmfreeway.com/mspiff)  Focus this year will be on Chinese cinema with films from China to be presented throughout the Festival.

Upcoming on Talk of the Stacks sponsored by Friends of the Hennepin County Library:  Alex Sager on Tuesday, April 24 and Tracy Smith on May 16. https://www.supporthclib.org/sites/default/files/2018%20Talk%20of%20the%20Stacks%20Press%20Release.pdf

“To Be Honest” is the theme of a series of programs sponsored  by The Loft, March through May. (https://www.loft.org/events__programs/thematic_series/to_be_honest/)

Poet Billy Collins hosts a unique resource designed to create a love of poetry with young people.  Poetry 180 offers a poem a day for high school students – the 180 refers to the fact that the project is for school days only. https://www.loc.gov/poetry/180/

Some fun links:

Sunshine Week March 11-17, 2018

See also: Women’s history month reads:  https://www.goodreads.com/blog/show/1186-elaine-f-weiss-what-to-read-this-women-s-history-month?rto=x_gr_e_nl_general&utm_medium=email&utm_source=newsletter&utm_campaign=march062018&utm_content=bookend2womenshistory&ref_=pe_3097180_272564230
 

Life after football – Time to read, view, listen, plan for Spring!

By the time you read this post you will have recovered from the Super Bowl and gone back to shoveling, politics and thinking about life, the universe and everything.   Consider these possibilities:

Has all the political foment – or maybe it was going to see The Post – inspired you to go back to the Good Old Days of Watergate?   Now online at the Library of Congress are the Senate Watergate hearings.  The American Archive of Public Broadcasting recently published an online exhibit at LC. Gavel-to-Gavel: The Watergate Scandal and Public Television (https://www.loc.gov/item/prn-17-167/library-and-wgbh-acquire-historic-tv-coverage-of-senate-watergate-hearings/2017-11-03)

While you’re surfing the treasures of the Library of Congress, click on some of LC’s digital trove of resources including, definitely not limited to, these:

Or relax and enjoy this video discussion of Hannah and Sugar, the children’s book written and illustrated by Kate Berube, recently named recipient of the 2017 Ridgway Award.   Lisa Von Drasek, Curator of the U of M Library’s Kerlan Collection, shares the book and background on the Ridgway Award, the annual honor presented to an author or illustrator in recognition of an outstanding debut in the world of children’s picture book.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SWDVlXqxySM

Weather permitting you may want to venture out –  bundle up and explore these possibilities:

  • The new season for Talk of the Stacks which begins on February 27 when Alicia Eler, Stephanie Glaros and Stephanie Curtis will explore “identity as it relates to digital media.” See the season schedule and details here: (https://www.supporthclib.org/talk-stacks).   Friends of Minneapolis will also hold their Annual Meeting on Tuesday, February 20, 5:30 PM at the Central Library.
  • Or check out these forthcoming Club Book author talks;
    • Omar El Akkad – Tuesday, February 13, 7 PM at Saint Anthony Park Library in St Paul
    • Peter Geye – Monday, February 26, 7 PM at Rum River Library in Anoka
    • William Kent Krueger – Thursday, March 1, 6:30 at Chanhassen Public Library

Click here for information on sponsorship and full season schedule.   http://clubbook.org.  Note that Club Book presentations are podcast so you can listen at your leisure.

Sign of the times:   https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/youtube-will-start-labeling-videos-from-state-funded-broadcasters/ar-BBIDpOW?ocid=UE01DHP

If the long winter has depleted your “to be read” pile, check out this listing of the National Book Critics Circle finalists for books published during 2017.   http://bookcritics.org/blog/archive/national-book-critics-circle-announces-finalists-for-2017-awards

Resistance, Resilience, Renewal — a gathering of poetry and song celebrating the enduring legacy and inspiration of Meridel LeSueur.  The special event, set for 6:30 p.m. on February 22, is hosted by the East Side Freedom Side Freedom Library and the St Paul Almanac.  It’s at 630 PM on February 22.  The program begins with presentations and performances of Meridel’s work as well as original work by established and emerging artists.  More at https://www.evensi.us/renewal-gathering-poetrysong-celebrating-meridel-lesueur-east-side-freedom-library/244411880 

Take time to mark your calendar for these special events:
  • World Storytelling Day is set for March 20, 2018. Theme of the local event is “Wise Fools – Wisdom on the Folly of War.  Again this year the local event will be at the Landmark Center in downtown St. Paul.  Details to follow.
  • The Spring 2018 Westminster Town Hall Forum schedule is out.  All presentations are at Westminster Presbyterian Church on the Mall in downtown Minneapolis.  Dates and speakers are: March 22 – Noon, Journalist and editor Suzy Hansen, “An American Abroad” –  April 10, Noon, Pediatrician and children’s health advocate Nadine Burke Harris “Children Adversity and Health. – May 1, Noon, Steve Schmidt, Founder of the Center for Political Communication at the University of Delaware, “A candid look at today’s headlines.” – May 22, 7:00 PM, Richard Stengel, Former managing editor of Time. “Mandela’s Way: Lessons on Life.”  Come early for the music that precedes the Forum; stay for the public reception that follows. All talks are broadcast on Minnesota public radio:  Questions: contact 612 332 3421.   

Winter, a lingering season, is a time to gather golden moments, embark upon a sentimental journey, and enjoy every idle hour.  John Boswell

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Young poet envisions “a world worth building!”

These days my head has been teeming with images of the many faces of Resistance – mostly the ways in which people of good will have gathered to blend their skills and societal commitment to share truth, experiences and opinions — eventually, to take arms (or voice, or knitting needles, laptop, paint brush, cello, chisel or camera) to oppose – and end – the “sea of troubles” in which the nation is floundering.

The splash this weekend has been news of Amanda Gorman, a young woman whose powerful presence and poetry have taken the nation by storm.  As the first National Youth Poet Laureate Amanda was omnipresent in the media as she spoke out at last weekend’s Social Good Summit.

Learn more about this powerful young woman of words — and listen to her message — here: http://mashable.com/2017/09/17/amanda-gorman-us-youth-poet-laureate-social-good/#ydD41XQL_iqg.  Or read this piece about Amanda and the National Youth Poet Laureate title here: https://www.pw.org/content/amanda_gorman_named_national_youth_poet_laureate

Because Amanda is the first to wear the laurel wreath as National Youth Poet Laureate it’s important to know more about the backstory of the initiative.  The project itself reflects the vision of Urban Word, a “youth literary arts and youth development organization” whose mission is “to elevate the voices of teens while promoting civic engagement and social justice.”  (http://urbanwordnyc.org) The project places youth in “spaces of power” where they can “creatively respond to the litany of social and political factors that impact their cities and their lives.”  https://www.pw.org/content/amanda_gorman_named_national_youth_poet_laureate

Last month, the youthful Poet Laureate met with the Librarian of Congress Carla Hayden and staff of the Poetry and Literature Staff of the Library of Congress. The description of that informal gathering, prepared by LC staffer Anne Holmes, offers a thoughtful overview of the Youth Poet Laureate initiative and insights about Amanda’s experience. You’ll feel the flicker of hope springing eternal: https://blogs.loc.gov/catbird/2017/07/amanda-gorman-inaugural-national-youth-poet-laureate/

Reflecting on her experience as a participant in the Social Good Summit, Amanda shared these elegant words with Summit attendees:

With one microphone, we streak/ across the globe like an eclipse. We strike our plans into stone/ and from this we build a summit worth climbing, / a goal worth reaching, / a world worth building.”

 

Celebrating Archives and Archivists – A Minnesota perspective

Today – Wednesday October 5, 2016 – is Ask An Archivist Day!!! https://archivesaware.archivists.org/2016/09/06/ask-an-archivist-day/

In fact, the month of October 2016 is designated as National Archives Month. http://www2.archivists.org/initiatives/american-archives-month-the-power-of-collaboration

Recently, after a video interview with friend and retired University of Minnesota archivist, Richard Kelly, I posted these thoughts of appreciation: https://marytreacy.wordprehttps://marytreacy.wordpress.com/tag/association-of-american-archives/ss.com/tag/association-of-american-archives/ Recognition of National Archives Month prompts me to learn and share more about the range of archival resources in our community.

What follows opens the doors, though not the resources, of the state’s archives, repositories of written materials, photographs, memorabilia and a range of resources that inform and enrich our lives.

Minnesota Historical Society 

Though many of us have visited the Minnesota History Center we may not realize that the citadel on the hill is but one of the many sites operated by MHS. In fact, there are 26 sites, http://www.mnhs.org/visit. Each of these sites maintains archival resources related to the area and the focus of the individual site; each supports its own website, clickable from the MHS site.

A major program of the Minnesota Historical Society is the Minnesota State Archives: http://www.mnhs.org/preserve/records/ State Archives offer a wide range of resources including www.newspapers.com, a database the provides online access to 3000 historical newspapers dating from the early 1700’s to the early 2000

The Archives Facebook postings provide current info about programming, workshops and other learning opportunities.

University of Minnesota Libraries

The University of Minnesota Libraries is home to a host of archival collections that range from the Archives of the University itself to the Jean-Nikolaus Tretter Collection in GLBT Studies, the Kautz Family YMCA Archives, the Givens Collection of African American Literature and the Guthrie Theater Archives.   For a full list of repositories and finding aids click here https://www.lib.umn.edu/special — or you might want to click on this useful starting point:

https://www.lib.umn.edu/special/using-archives-and-special-collections

The Twin Cities Archives Roundtable

One local network that will be celebrating National Archives Month is The Twin Cities Archives Roundtable (https://tcartmn.org) Founded in 1982 TCART (as the group is commonly known) includes archivists, curators, librarians, records managers and information specialists from government agencies, county and state historical societies, academic institutions, corporations and religious organizations. TCART will be holding its annual Minnesota Archives Symposium on Monday, November 14, at the Elmer L. Andersen Library at the University of Minnesota.

Are you harboring a tough question that only an archivist would love? Save it for October 27 when the Smithsonian Institute Archives is hosting “Ask an Archivist Day” http://siarchives.si.edu/blog/tag/archives-month.

To view the informative conversation with archivist Richard Kelly, click here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tumRr08qkrc

BULLETIN:  A bit of local history: Later this week, on October 7, the National Archives will present a public program featuring the story of the nation’s first gay marriage, that of Minnesotans Jack Baker and Mike McConnell. The presentation is based on the archival record of the couple’s lengthy legal battle as recounted in their book The Wedding Heard ‘Round the World: America’s First Gay Marriage. The program will be live streamed on the National Archives YouTube channel. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGVQfq8a6fY&feature=youtu.be

 

Rosa Parks – An armchair guide to a major exhibition of her life and work

Though snippets of the story and role of Rosa Parks are known, the fact is that much of her personal story has heretofore been hidden to the public. The Rosa Parks Collection at the Library of Congress, formally opened just last week, sheds much more light on the personal life of this courageous civil rights leader. The Rosa Parks Collection is on loan for ten years from the Howard G. Buffett Foundation to the Library of Congress.

The collection contains 7500 manuscripts and 2500 photographs. Throughout the month of March a sampling of approximately two dozen items will be on view in the Thomas Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress. Items from the collection will also be included in the ongoing exhibition, “The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom,” which will open at the Library in September.

Visitors to the exhibition — including virtual visitors — may well find a Rosa Parks they had not known. One poignant example is Parks’ description of her treatment at the downtown public library, where “a colored person will not be permitted to come in and read a book or be given one to take out. The requested book will be sent to the colored branch library, on the east side of town.”

The exhibition proves that Rosa Parks was more complex and more passionate than the stoic protester often portrayed in accounts of her life. Instead, it is clear from her letters that she was filled with rage that inspired her protests. She wrote that “I want to feel the nearness of something secure. It is such a lonely, lost feeling that I am cut off from life. I am nothing. I belong nowhere and to no one.”

Parks wrote that “little children are so conditioned early to learn their places in the segregated pattern as they make their first toddling steps and are weaned from the mother’s breast.” The conditioning last a lifetime. “There is just so much hurt, disappointment and oppression one can take. The bubble of life grows larger. The line between reason and madness grows thinner.”

The letters include Parks’ references to the murder of Emmett Till and to the terror of the Ku Klux Klan in her home town of Pine Level, Alabama where “KKK moved through the country, burning negro churches, schools, flogging and killing.”

On the one hand, Parks’ refusal to abandon her seat on the public bus meant financial hardship. On the other hand, it earned her the Presidential Medal of Freedom as well as the respect and admiration of countless individuals, including political and social leaders ranging from Eleanor Roosevelt to Martin Luther King who said of her: “No one can understand the action of Mrs. Parks unless he realizes that eventually the cup of endurance runs over, and the human personality cries out, ‘I can take it no longer.’”

One need not travel to Washington, DC to experience the richness of the Rosa Parks exhibition: