Tag Archives: Black History Month

Mattie Clark, African American storyteller who “followed her sacred calling”

Storytelling is a practice as old as human history – it is storytelling that has preserved and passed down much of the history of humankind. Still, it is not until more recent times that the storytelling has received its deserved respect as performance art. One African American woman who elevated the art of storytelling to its current status is Mattie Clark.

Mattie Clark’s story is one that calls out to be heard during Black History Month. Because Mattie died at the age of 69 in 2010 it remains to others to celebrate her life contributions.

Born in Bourbon, Mississippi Mattie May Anthony spent her early years living a hardscrabble life in a very large and poor Black family. At age 15 she married 19-year-old Danny Robinson Clark. The young couple moved to Minneapolis in the 60’s.

Always a storyteller in her soul Mattie began a lifelong of with others the stories about African American culture that she had learned from her grandmother. Storytelling filled much of her day as a volunteer teacher’s aide in the Minneapolis schools. In time, sharing those stories became her full time profession. She told stories to children in schools and libraries, to the elderly in nursing homes, to homeless people, corporate executives and academics.   She was frequently sponsored by the Minnesota History Center, the Science Museum and the Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

Mattie was also active in the early days of the Twin Cities Black Storytellers Alliance, a collaboration that remains an active member of the National Association of Black Storytellers. NABS, founded by storytellers Mary Carter Smith of Baltimore and Linda Goss of Philadelphia, was incorporated in 1990. The founding of the organization reflects the emerging interest in storytelling as a means of sharing the experience of African Americans, a movement of which Mattie was very much a part.

In 2006 Mattie was honored as an Esteemed Elder by NABS; the prestigious Award honors the memory of Hugh “Brother Blue” Morgan, a Harvard professor and storytelling icon who shared thoughts that echo the work of Mattie Clark: “If you are not here to change the world, if you just want to get rich, you can laugh all the way to the bank – Me, I’m better off here in the street with my honor, with my sacred calling.”

Those who speak or write of Mattie Clark recall the tough jobs she took on to supplement her modest income from her beloved storytelling. At other times Mattie told stories in other media. In the 1980’s she wrote a column known as “Diamond in the Rough” for the Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder where she shared good news from and about her Minneapolis community. Mattie’s voice was also heard on radio station KMOJ where she hosted a gospel music program and interviewed guests who told stories of their neighborhoods and programs.

Without exception, everyone recalls her laugh and the “sunshine” she shared with all around her, including her husband and four children

The one person who best remembers Mattie Clark is her beloved husband of 53 years. Danny Robinson Clark is a professional actor who has appeared on stages from Broadway to the Guthrie, most recently in the Guthrie production of Abe Lincoln and Uncle Tom in the White House. Danny Clark shared his memories of Mattie in a reflection recorded in January 2014; his loving memories of Mattie are captured in one of a series of interviews with Danny videotape by Peter Shea for the Bat of Minerva series.

Danny’s is a poignant tribute to a magnificent African American woman who “followed her sacred calling” to share the stories of Black Americans with all who would take time to listen. Take time to view and listen to Danny’s reflections on the life he shared with Mattie Clark. (http://ias.umn.edu/2013/07/30/clark/) The interview is one of four in the series; each can be streamed, audio or podcast video.   View them all or scroll to Mattie’s story recorded January 28, 2014. )




Harriet Robinson Scott – A Tireless Quest for Emancipation

It was a couple of years ago when the Bloomington Human Rights Commission and its partners inaugurated the Dred and Harriet Scott Legacy of Courage and Freedom program that I became curious about Harriet Robinson Scott.   Black History Month 2015 inspires me to dig a bit to fill the gap in my learning – or my memory.

Harriet Robinson Scott was born a slave in Virginia in about 1815. Her owner was Major Lawrence Taliaferro, an Indian agent assigned to Fort Snelling circa 1820. In the early 1830’s Taliaferro brought teenager Harriet Robinson with him to Fort Snelling where she became a house servant, contrary to territorial law but allowed by military rules. Fort Snelling was a military fort and fur-trading outpost, well-known to today’s Minnesotans. Though Harriet lived with the slaves, she later based her claim to freedom in the Missouri courts in part on the fact that her having lived in a free territory while at Fort Snelling made her a free woman.

Born into slavery in Virginia about1799 Dred Scott was owned first by Peter Blow from St. Louis. Around 1830 Blow sold Dred to Dr. John Emerson, a military surgeon stationed at Jefferson Barracks near St. Louis. Dred traveled to posts in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory with Dr. Emerson.

Dred arrived at Fort Snelling in May 1836 with Dr. Emerson. There he worked as the personal servant to Dr. Emerson. Harriet would have been about 21 years old at this time; Dred Scott would have been about 36. Harriet and Dred were married in a civil ceremony in 1836 or 1837; officiating was Major Taliaferro who has also Justice of the Peace for the Fort. Marriage meant that Harriet became the property of Dr. Emerson and assumed duties as the property of the new Mrs. Emerson, Eliza Irene Sanford.

Pregnant but indentured, in April 1838 Harriet had to follow the Emersons when the doctor was transferred to Fort Jessup, Louisiana. In a short time the Emersons relocated to St. Louis, then soon back to Fort Snelling. En route North Harriet gave birth on board the steamer Gipsey. Her first daughter Eliza Scott was thus born in free territory. Harriet stayed with Mrs. Emerson at Fort Snelling for two more years.

When Dr. Emerson was transferred to Florida in 1840 the Scott family was sent to St. Louis where they were hired out to work for other people while the Emersons collected their wages. In St. Louis Harriet gave birth to a second daughter, Lizzy.

In 1843 Dr. Emerson died suddenly leaving Dred, Harriet and their two daughters in the hands of his widow. Mrs. Emerson moved in with her proslavery father, Alexander, on his plantation in north St. Louis County. For the next three years, Harriet and Dred worked for other people while Mrs. Emerson collected their wages.

Then came the turning point in the Scotts’ lives. In 1846 Harriet Robinson Scott took legal action to claim her freedom. On April 6 of that year the couple filed separate petitions in the St. Louis Circuit Court to gain their freedom from Irene Sanford Emerson. The Scotts had friends in St. Louis who had been granted freedom if they had lived in free states. The hope was that the Scotts had a chance for freedom, based on their years living at Fort Snelling. When their cases came to trial in June 1847 they were dismissed on a technicality.

Though their lawyer requested a new trial, before that retrial took place Irene Emerson made arrangements for the Scotts to be under the custody of the sheriff of St. Louis County. There they remained for nine years, until March 1857; during all this time the sheriff was responsible for hiring them out and collecting and keeping their wages until the freedom suit was resolved.

After several delays, including a huge fire and a cholera outbreak, Harriet Scott’s case was heard in January 1850. The jury ruled in her favor….

Mrs. Emerson and her brother John A Sanford were disinclined to lose their valuable human property. Mrs. Emerson appealed her case to the Missouri Supreme Court. Before it came to trial, a decision was made to combine the cases of Harriet and Dred Scott, the understanding being that the outcome of the case would apply to Harriet and their two daughters. Harriet’s wait to be free continued.

Meanwhile, Cupid came to the rescue. Irene Emerson moved to Springfield, Mass where she met and married Dr. Calvin Clifford Chaffee, an antislavery Congressman

Later, the groom claimed ignorance of his wife’s pending court case and of the fact that she owned slaves. The case was turned over to Mrs. Chafee’s brother, John Sanford. In March 1852 the Missouri Supreme Court upheld the right of slave owners, reversed the earlier ruling and rejected the Scotts’ plea for freedom.

The Scott’s were undeterred. In 1852 Charles Edmund LaBeaume, a supporter of the Scotts, hired Harriet from the sheriff.   Harriet worked for LaBeaume for $4 a month, Dred for $5 a month. Meanwhile, they continued their quest for freedom. Five years later, after moving the case through the Missouri courts to the Supreme Court, Harriet received a dreaded decision. On March 6, 1857, the court ruled that Harriet, Dred, Eliza and Lizzie Scott should remain slaves. Soon thereafter, when John Sanford died, Dr. Chaffee insisted that ownership of the Scott family be transferred to Taylor Blow, son of Peter Blow, Dred Scott’s owner. Blow then freed the entire family.

Dred Scott lived as a free man for just one year. In 1858 he died of tuberculosis. Harriet worked as a “free Negro” laundress in St. Louis for many years. She died of “general disability” at age 71 on June 17, 1876. She was buried in Greenwood Cemetery, a St. Louis cemetery for Black Americans.

The Dred and Harriet Scott Interpretive Plaques were unveiled two years ago. The Plaques and Dred Scott Playfield, originally dedicated by the City of Bloomington in 1971, are at 10820 Bloomington Ferry Road. For additional information contact the Bloomington Human Rights Commission (humanrights@bloomingtonMN.gov) or Bloomington Parks and Rec (parksrec@bloomingtonmn.gov)


Exploring African American History Month – the Gov Docs Approach


Maya Angelou tells us that “history, despite its wrenching pain, cannot be unlived, but if faced with courage, need not be lived again.”   And so, whether or not we slow down to think, we as a people set aside occasions – a day, a week, a month – to commemorate a the stories of the people, events, eras or movements that shape our nation’s history.

As we pass the halfway mark of African American History Month I have finally stopped to think.  Because at this juncture I cannot free my thinking from the confines of information by and about the federal government this post explores those singular and massive resources. With a nod to February, these national treasures are accessible to the snowbound learner with time to ponder the wonders of the African American story.

Sound stuffy?  Try tweeting Beglan O’Brien, fictional Civil War reporter – he’ll fill you in on what’s happening on the battlefront and direct you to amazing backup resources you can explore from the comfort of your home or cubicle.  (https://twitter.com/CivilWarReportr)

Feel like viewing a documentary film?  They’re online, too. There are several films covering a range of topics including The Loving Story relates the troubled tale of a mixed race marriage in 1958;  Freedom Riders documents the story of the diverse and determined riders, black and white, many of whom traveled great distances, to join the struggle for civil rights;  The Abolitionists brings to life the men and women — Frederick Douglass, John Brown, Harriet Beecher Stowe and their contemporaries — who led the battle to end slavery; and Slavery by Another Name, the unacknowledged story of African American men charged with petty crimes, treated as indentured slaves. (http://createdequal.neh.gov)

Want to get into the creative mind of Zora Neale Hurston?  Feel free to explore the digitized manuscripts of many of her plays now readily accessible online from the Library of Congress.  (http://www.loc.gov/collection/zora-neale-hurston-plays/about-the-collection)

Also at the Library of Congress find Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers’ Project from the Library of Congress. (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/)

At the Smithsonian join a Heritage Tour (http://heritagetours.si.edu/bhm.html)  It starts slow but keep on trekking.  You’ll find photos and the story of Muhammed Ali’s robe and boxing gloves or the Woolworth’s lunch counter.

The National Archives offers learners a free eBook, The Meaning and Making of Emancipation, that illustrates the conception and significance of the Emancipation Proclamation through documents in the holdings of the National Archives, available for iPad, iPhone, Android, eReaders, and online

Also at the Archives explore the photographic map-based tour of The March on Washington on Historypin. (http://www.historypin.com/attach/uid23019/tours/view/540/title/The%20March%20on%20Washington/)

Though the possibilities never end African American History Month will do so soon – and thus the list of thought-provoking resources stops here.   Wherever you start, you’ll soon find yourself enmeshed and amazed at the digital treasures to probe and ponder.

Almost always, the creative dedicated minority has made the world better.

                                                                       — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.




Exploring the Legacy of MLK in the Digital Age

Long ago I learned from my friend Marvin Roger Anderson that commemoration of the MLK birthday holiday should involve community building, connecting with friends and neighbors to share celebrate the dream.  He insisted that public libraries should throw open their doors to serve as gathering sites. MLK’s birthday, he reminded us, is the only holiday that’s not about family or gifts or escape but an occasion to experience, share and build community committed to MLK’s dream.

Those who have the day off and no home obligations might well heed Marvin’s wise counsel. There are mega-gatherings today at the Convention Center, the Minnesota History Center, the Cathedral as well as less formal events in neighborhoods, places of worship, colleges and public places.   For the homebound our community engagement can be a virtual learning adventure.

Public media do a good job of sharing their audio and video rich resources – in yesterday’s post I mentioned one of many.

Less well known are the vast digital resources to which digital age armchair learners enjoy unprecedented access.  Many of these resources are collected, preserved, digitized and shared by agencies of the federal government, the most prominent of which is the Library of Congress.  LC is digitizizing humungous collections of documents, photos, recordings, diaries, artifacts, virtually anything that helps to tell the story of this nation.  Further, the Library produces online guides to resources of a host of other collections within and outside the federal bureaucracy.

MLK Day provides a great opportunity for a digital dip into the treasures of LC.  The problem is that to dip may be to drown.  A significant problem in using digital resources is that the tidal wave is too much and the searcher washes ashore.

One approach is to start with a guide that LC created in 2010 to complement The African-American Mosaic exhibit.  Click here: (http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam001.html) .  When you search under “Martin Luther King” the guide will send you to two sites:

Your learning curve has just begun.  Within LC lie countless caches of digitized history including, for example, the American Folklife Center (http://www.loc.gov/folklife/aboutafc.html) as well as the Afro-American Genealogical Research collection, the National Women’s History Project, the records of the NAACP, and the National Museum for African American History and Culture (http://nmaahc.si.edu)  still a work-in-progress set to open next year

The guide will lead you beyond the walls of the Library of Congress (not that walls matter to the armchair searcher).  The National Archives and Records Administration (http://archives.gov) is the repository of the records of the government itself.   “Celebrating MLK’s Legacy and Birthday” offers a quick glimpse of the National Archives resources on the King era – a smidgeon with links (http://blogs.archives.gov/blackhistoryblog/)

Armchair searching of the photos, videos, artifacts, posters, diaries, pamphlets – the stories — is a healthy addiction.  For some, the story of the process itself is as important as the stories that emerge from the records.  Such digital enthusiasts will enjoy this YouTube intro to digitization: (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BkzWN9t1alk)

With African American History Month just weeks away venturing into the MLK stories may whet the appetite for more – including, perchance, another post.  In the meantime, this just popped up on Twitter – take a minute to click, read and listen:

















Celebrating African American Literature During Black History Month

In Minnesota and throughout the nation the name  Archie  Givens – Senior or Junior — is synonymous with the rich legacy of African American literature.

Archie Givens, Sr. was a noted Minnesota business leader with a passion for collecting the very best of African American literature of his era.   The Archie Givens Senior Collection of African American Literature is now housed at the University of Minnesota Libraries.  The collection includes over 8,000 volumes representative of a broad range of African American literary genre dating back to 1773..  Among the holdings are the archives of the Penumbra Theater, manuscripts, fiction, nonfiction, even letters of African American authors.

There is a beautiful documentary based on the Givens collection which was described in an earlier post on this blog.

In celebration of Black History Month, Minneapolis downtown workers and visitors will have a chance to catch a glimpse of the wonders of the collection.  Books from the Givens collection will be on display at the Hennepin Gallery at the Hennepin County Government Center, 300 South Sixth Street through February 26.  Many of the books on exhibit are rare first editions, some of which have been out of print for decades.  Some of the books are actually signed by the author;  others include covers designed by well-known artists.

The Hennepin Gallery is free and open to the pubic Monday through Friday, 7:30 a.m – 6:00 p.m.

Meanwhile, Archie Givens Jr. continues to support his father’s literary passion.  Time is short but it is not too late to attend a related African American literary event, this one sponsored in part by Archie Givens, Jr. as part of Black History Month.  Since 2004 The Givens Foundation for African American Literature and the Friends of the U of M Libraries have sponsored the NOMMO African American Authors Series.  (NOMMO is a Dogon word meaning “the magic power of the word”

This year the featured artist is poet and literary activist E. Ethelbert Miller.  He will read from his work and discuss the state of the art of African American literature with U of M professor Alexs Pate.  The event is Wednesday, February 6, 7:00 p.m. in Cowles Auditorium, Humphrey Center, 301 19th Avenue South on the U of M West Bank.

Tickets are $15, no charge for U of M students, members of the Givens Foundation and Friends of the U of M Libraries.  612 624 2345.

African American History Month – Government Stats Tell the Story

A wise friend once opined that “no one has ever had an information need.”  We need to know about something – our health, our taxes, our family history, our neighborhood, our job prospects, our choice of an appliance, our rights, our kids’ school.  Information is the means, not the end.

The term “access to government information” weighs like a leaden balloon on the public ear.  Recognizing this,  I’ve mounted a personal mini-crusade to breathe life into people’s ideas of what is, after all, a vital public resource – and an incredibly boring subject for all but the info-obsessed.

Even as the Census Bureau is tabulating the results of last year’s mighty count, folks there (and yes, real people are involved) are lending a generous hand by compiling and distributing an array of lists of government information focused on topics of interest.

Last week I was touting a Census Bureau compilation on Superbowl XVI minutia, irresistible to all but pro football luddites (if that’s a term.)  Frivolous to some of us, perhaps, but a glimpse into the creative imaginations of statisticians at the Census Bureau.

This week’s offering is of far greater consequence.  As we immerse ourselves in Black History Month we all have a lot to learn.  Though we could easily drown in the sea of information resources that pours forth during the month of February the Census Bureau collection of data and links is convenient, authoritative and a prime example of public information serving public purposes.

Though this snippet is akin to a spotting small star in the cosmos of public information, it illuminates what access to government information is all about.  It’s information you can trust, find with ease, and use at will with no concern for payment (it’s pre-paid by the American public) or ownership (it belongs to the people.)   Remember this list is saturated with numbers – it is from the Census Bureau.  And it is just one facet of the universe of information the government is so good at collecting, organizing and making available.

Black (African-American) History Month:
February 2011

To commemorate and celebrate the contributions to our nation made by people of African descent, American historian Carter G. Woodson established Black History Week. The first celebration occurred on Feb. 12, 1926. For many years, the second week of February was set aside for this celebration to coincide with the birthdays of abolitionist/editor Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln. In 1976, as part of the nation’s bicentennial, the week was expanded into Black History Month. Each year, U.S. presidents proclaim February as National African-American History Month.

The population figures shown here are based on various sources but not on the 2010 Census. We expect to release 2010 figures for the black population and other races by April 1, 2011.


41.8 million

As of July 1, 2009, the estimated population of black residents in the United States, including those of more than one race. They made up 13.6 percent of the total U.S. population. This figure represents an increase of more than a half-million residents from one year earlier.
Source: Population estimates <http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/NC-EST2009-srh.html>

65.7 million

The projected black population of the United States (including those of more than one race) for July 1, 2050. On that date, according to the projection, blacks would constitute 15 percent of the nation’s total population.
Source: Population projections <http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb08-123.html>


Number of states with an estimated black population on July 1, 2009, of at least 1 million. New York, with 3.5 million, led the way. The other 17 states on the list were Alabama, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia.
Source: Population estimates <http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/SC-EST2009-04.html>


Percentage of Mississippi’s population that was black in 2009. Although New York had the largest number of blacks of any state, Mississippi had the largest share of blacks in its total population. Blacks also made up more than a quarter of the population in Louisiana (33 percent), Georgia (31 percent), Maryland (31 percent), South Carolina (29 percent) and Alabama (27 percent). They comprised 55 percent of the population in the District of Columbia.
Source: Population estimates <http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/SC-EST2009-04.html>


The increase in Texas’ black population between July 1, 2008, and July 1, 2009, which led all states.
Source: Population estimates <http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/SC-EST2009-04.html>


Number of states in which blacks were the largest minority group in 2009. These included Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin. Blacks were also the largest minority group in the District of Columbia. (Note: Minorities are part of a group other than single-race non-Hispanic white.)
Source: Population estimates <http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/SC-EST2009-04.html>

1.4 million

The number of blacks in Cook County, Ill., as of July 1, 2009, which led the nation’s counties in the number of people of this racial category. Harris County, Texas, had the largest numerical increase in the black population between July 1, 2008, and July 1, 2009 (15,700).
Source: Population estimates <http://www.census.gov/popest/counties/asrh/>

Among counties with total populations of at least 10,000, Claiborne County, Miss., had the largest percent of population that was black (85 percent). Claiborne led 77 majority-black counties or equivalents.
Source: Population estimates <http://www.census.gov/popest/counties/asrh/>


The proportion of the black population younger than 18 as of July 1, 2009. At the other end of the spectrum, 8 percent of the black population was 65 and older.
Source: Population estimates <http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/NC-EST2009-asrh.html>

Note: Unless otherwise noted, the estimates in this section refer to the population that was either single-race black or black in combination with one or more other races.

Serving Our Nation

2.3 million

Number of single-race black military veterans in the United States in 2009.
Source: 2009 American Community Survey <http://factfinder.census.gov>



Among blacks 25 and older, the proportion who had at least a high school diploma in 2009.
Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009 <http://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/education/data/cps/2009/tables.html>


Percentage of blacks 25 and older who had a bachelor’s degree or higher in 2009.
Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009 <http://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/education/data/cps/2009/tables.html>

1.5 million

Among blacks 25 and older, the number who had an advanced degree in 2009 (e.g., master’s, doctorate, medical or law). A decade earlier, in 1999, about 900,000 blacks had this level of education.
Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009 <http://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/education/data/cps/2009/tables.html>

2.5 million

Number of black college students in fall 2008. This was roughly double the corresponding number from 25 years earlier.
Source: School Enrollment — Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2008


16.1 million

The number of blacks who voted in the 2008 presidential election, up by about 2.1 million from the 2004 presidential election. The total number of voters rose by 5.4 million, to 131.1 million.
Source: Voting and Registration in the Election of 2008


Turnout rate in the 2008 presidential election for the 18- to 24-year-old citizen black population, an 8 percent increase from 2004. Blacks had the highest turnout rate in this age group.
Source: Voting and Registration in the Election of 2008


Turnout rate among black citizens in the 2008 presidential election, up about 5 percentage points from 2004. Looking at voter turnout by race and Hispanic origin, non-Hispanic whites and blacks had the highest turnout levels.
Source: Voting and Registration in the Election of 2008

Income, Poverty and Health Insurance


The annual median income of single-race black households in 2009, a decline of 4.4 percent (in 2009 constant dollars) from 2008.
Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009


Poverty rate in 2009 for single-race blacks, up from 24.7 percent in 2008.
Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009


The percentage of single-race blacks lacking health insurance in 2009, up from 19.1 percent in 2008.
Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

Families and Children


Among households with a single-race black householder, the percentage that contained a family. There were 8.6 million black family households.
Source: 2009 American Community Survey <http://factfinder.census.gov>


Among families with single-race black householders, the percentage that were married couples.
Source: 2009 American Community Survey <http://factfinder.census.gov>

1.3 million

Number of single-race black grandparents who lived with their own grandchildren younger than 18. Of this number, 50 percent were also responsible for their care.
Source: 2009 American Community Survey <http://factfinder.census.gov>



Nationally, the percentage of households with a householder who was single-race black who lived in owner-occupied homes.
Source: 2009 American Community Survey <http://factfinder.census.gov>



The percentage of single-race blacks 16 and older who worked in management, professional and related occupations.
Source: 2009 American Community Survey <http://factfinder.census.gov>


$137.4 billion

Receipts for black-owned businesses in 2007, up 55.1 percent from 2002. The number of black-owned businesses totaled 1.9 million in 2007, up 60.5 percent.


Percentage of black-owned businesses in 2007 in health care and social assistance, repair and maintenance and personal and laundry services.


Percentage of businesses in the District of Columbia in 2007 which were black-owned, which led all states or state-equivalents. Georgia and Maryland followed, at 20.4 percent and 19.3 percent, respectively.
Source for statements in this section: Preliminary Estimates of Business Ownership by Gender, Ethnicity, Race and Veteran Status: 2007 <http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/economic_census/cb10-107.html>